Study Description and Purpose

Breastfeeding is recognized for its widespread health benefits for both baby and mother, yet breastfeeding isn’t without its challenges. More and more, clinicians are recognizing that complex factors influence families’ decisions to breastfeed and ability to meet their breastfeeding goals. This study was born out of two realizations:

  1. while there is much information about breastfeeding during infancy, there is relatively little information about breastfeeding beyond infancy, and
  2. historically, African Americans have faced disparities in health outcomes, including rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration.

This study seeks to gather information that will allow clinicians to better support African American families’ as they set and meet their breastfeeding goals, specifically breastfeeding goals that extend beyond infancy.

This research study was reviewed by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Pennsylvania and was deemed exempt.

About Us

We are a team of researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, and our aim is to capture the voices, experiences, demographics, and insight of African American families who breastfeed beyond infancy. We plan to use this data to better understand the breastfeeding experiences and care and support needs of Black/African American families’ so that clinicians can be best equipped to support breastfeeding mothers whose goals include breastfeeding beyond infancy.

Diane Lynn Spatz, PhD, RN-BC, FAAN

is a professor of perinatal nursing & the Helen M. Shearer Professor of Nutrition at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing. She is also the faculty advisor to Student Nurses at Penn and a nurse-scientist in lactation at the Center for Nursing Research & Evidence Based Practice at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP).

Stephanie N. Acquaye

is a birth doula, BSN-PhD Student, and Hillman Scholar in Nursing Innovation at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing.

Who qualifies for participation in this study?

If you:

  • identify as Black or African American and
  • have breastfed a child for at least 12 months or more (including exclusive pumping for at least 12 months or more) sometime within the past five years and
  • are willing to share your experience by filling out a short survey and/or participating in an optional virtual interview

then you qualify for participation in this study.

How can I participate in this study?

To participate in this study, you can do either or both of the following:

Complete an online survey

One way to participate in this study is to fill out a short survey which should take approximately 15-20 minutes. You will be asked to answer questions about your breastfeeding experience as well as a few demographic questions. All information collected through this survey is and will remain anonymous.

Participate in an interview

Another way in which you can participate in this study is to share about your experience via participation in a virtual interview. Interviews are estimated to last approximately 30-45 minutes and can be scheduled at your convenience. Steps will be taken to de-identify any information you share during the interview such that your privacy will be protected.

Interested in sharing this study with someone you know?

If you know mothers who would be interested in participating in this study, please share the link to this webpage with them. Alternatively, you can download and share this flyer with a QR code or this flyer with hyperlinks to the survey and interview sign-up form.

Contact Us

Contact Us

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